In my last Healthcare blog I argued that because of the structure of our payment system, the network effects of the providers, and reimbursement rules healthcare isn’t a free market. I believe that the exchanges in the Affordable Care Act aka Obamacare, actually offer a path forward that may take us closer to a freer market for healthcare than anything we currently have.
First I need to say that they are not an immediate silver bullet the exchanges only offer a way forward and do not guarantee any changes in the market. Furthermore, if the exchanges do provide the changes I’d like to see it will take time, several years in fact, for those changes to have a broader impact on the market.
What are the exchanges? They are essentially a market place where a customer can select a type of insurance with a specific network that meets their needs. How is this different than what we have had in the past? Well, typically health insurance has been only offered through your employer and you get what they offer. If you don’t have a full time job, you’re basically out of luck and paying a huge monthly premium. The exchanges level that playing field by increasing the pool of people that will be using those types of insurance and allowing across state competition for health insurance. For example, there’s only one Blue Cross Blue Shield provider across all the exchanges in the US. That’s a pretty big change.
Because there is competition based on meeting the needs of the customers there will be much faster feedback to the “plans” as they are called. If members don’t like a specific offering, they won’t make any money and the next year will be forced to make a different offering to attract more members. Furthermore, there will be switching across the plans as people realize they dislike certain features. I believe this will happen for several years until a “dominate” plan design emerges based on the success of those plans. Healthier members, low turn over, and acceptable level of revenues for the insurers. Expect these metrics to be similar to the mobile industry in the US (ARPU, Churn, etc..).
Because of the relatively fast feedback on the products in the market and the possibility to have at least three offerings on the exchange (Gold, silver, bronze), insurers can experiment with different types of plans and benefits. The most popular one at this point is something called Accountable Care Organization, which is somewhat similar to an HMO, but is supposed to be better (we’ll see). ACOs as they are called will have to keep track of the overall quality and re-admission rates with a goal of continually driving up quality of care and reduce re-admissions. Additionally, these are narrower networks of care than a traditional PPO that most people have become accustom to.
That’s fine, but that doesn’t really help with the fact that it’s a networked economy and that there’s still a huge imbalance of knowledge. Well, here’s where the insurers can changes things up. Instead of focusing on the narrow set of providers in their region, they can look to create a network based upon the specific of the member’s conditions and have those members go to the specialty providers that offer the best care for those conditions. Even if they are out of state or out of the country.
Granted this data is a bit out of date, however it’s likely to be accurate, according to the Innovator’s Prescription (pg 96) there are facilities that have become so specialized in certain conditions (hernia repair) that their cost to treat those conditions is $2,300 while a general hospital costs an average of $7,000 and has a much lower re-admission rate than the general hospital. With this in mind an insurer could use these specialty clinics and even fly their members to receive treatment and still save money.
This would dramatically change the shape of the network for the members of those insurers and improve overall care and results. It would also dramatically change the interaction with providers in the member’s region as well. Some hospitals are already feeling the pain in this such as Seattle’s Children’s Hospital (which is suing over being excluded).
I don’t think being exclusive it the right direction, I think creating a strong partnership with members through health coaching and care management can help drive better results and education between the provider, insurance company, and member.
This will require continual experimentation with the types of networks, the way the insurance companies interact with their members to take it from a confrontational interaction (from the member’s perspective), and how the providers plan to engage with insurers. There needs to be incentives to encourage providers to recommend non-traditional recommendations. Incentives to support healthy living for the members. Only experimentation in all of these areas can inform the insurers how to engage better to dramatically improve the health and reduce the cost of our nation.
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