Who’s responsible for the internet’s capacity?

AT&T thinks that Netflix is trying to pass off the cost of network connections to end customers. There have been a few different displays of the architecture of the internet. Netflix operations at a different layer than AT&T does – Netflix is an application, so it runs on a layer above the network layer, which AT&T operates. Netflix doesn’t really care who actually sends their bits to the end user – they just care that they get there in a fashion that enables high def video. To this end, they purchase bandwidth from a company, mostly Cogent, and I pay Comcast (others pay AT&T) for me to receive those bits from the bandwidth provider of Netflix. I pay Netflix for access to their content.

Based on this payment model, if there’s not enough bandwidth for Netflix and I’m paying AT&T or another ISP for accessing Netflix, it’s up to them to make sure I have that connection. Content is King, so for me, it’s most important that I can access what I want when I want. That’s why I have an ISP so they can let me see what I want.

I think that the best analogy for content trumping gate keepers are the examples of higher premiums from popular channels. In some cases Timewarner cable pushed for lower rates to show a specific channel to their subscribers. In this example Forbes points out that ESPN costs $5.54 per viewer, they wanted to lower that price and pulled the channel out of rotation. This made a lot of people unhappy and in some cases people left Time warner over the issue.

Essentially, this is the same thing that is happening with Netflix. The ISPs don’t want to pay to upgrade their infrastructure to ensure that the consumers of media online (many of these people paying for higher download speeds and higher data caps). Netflix is providing a service that these people are willing to pay for but cannot control how the ISPs interact with their intermediaries so is in a tough spot. It’s a target because of it’s popularity and has no control of how anything gets to a specific user. That’s why it’s looking at the peer2peer model (which is how Skype keeps their rates low) so it won’t need to go through Cogent and will likely burden other parts of the network very differently.

I believe that if an ISP cannot meet it’s advertised speeds 90% of the time, then they need to update their infrastructure to meet my needs. If they throttle a popular service I’m watching and thus make it unwatchable, they need to upgrade their infrastructure. Most ISPs have an extremely high profit margin, which means that it’s coming out of their infrastructure investment and are not actually adding value.

There are many companies that are responsible for the capacity of the infrastructure and all of them can negatively impact our ability to use the internet. However, from an end user perspective, my ISP is on the hook first, then everyone else.

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